The Important Roles of Science and Technology toward the Development of a Nation


When we think of technology, we may feel that it is not something bizarre or strange to our mind. In this modern era, we cannot be separated from a thing called technology. Even in the past time, technology had been invented and became the foundation of sophisticated technology nowadays.
Basically, technology is invented to ease our need fulfillment and activities. Almost in all aspects of life, we are bound with technology. Concerning with this fact, what does technology have to do with the progress of a nation? Well, the thing is that the more developed a nation is, the more advanced the science and technology will be.
In the globalization era, information technology has an important role. By mastering information technology, a country can be said to have sufficient asset to win global competition. In the globalization era, technology illiterate is illiteracy.
The information and multimedia technology has a great capacity in delivering messages. Using this technology will make a communication system more effective. For this reason, optimizing human resources in all sectors is an inevitable thing.
The main difference between developed countries and developing countries is about the skills, science, and technology. The advanced progress in science and technology in developed countries occurs due to the existing supports from the well-established information system.
On the contrary, the weak information system in the developing countries is caused by the lack of mastery upon science and technology. From this reality, we can learn that the development of a country is much determined by the mastery of information technology and science as these things are the main assets of the country building.
One of the indicators of the developed nation is the high Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This high GDP happens as a result of professional and efficient work, supported by sophisticated technology. A farmer, for example, can use genetics-manipulating technology to yield superior and excellent plantation or husbandry in order to increase the selling price within and out of countries.
Science and technology also have a significant role in the defense and security of our country. It can also be used to mitigate the worst impact of a natural disaster such as the use of a Tsunami Early Warning System (TEWS) and earthquake-resistant construction technology. Science and technology is a progress machine, as long as it is contextually implemented in each context such as the economy, information, health, and so on. By science and technology, we can see a bright future and make impossible things possible.
Some research shows that the current problem faced by countries is the lack of intermediation to close the gap between science and technology creator and the user, lack of synergies between policy on science and technology and national building so that the result cannot be optimal, not mention the lack of professional and productive human resources.

The Levels of Technology Based on Its Implementation

High Technology (hi-tech)
Some examples of one of the latest technologies developed as a result of the implementation of the most updated science include computer, laser, biotechnology, communication satellite etc. The characteristics of this technology is capital-dense, supported by research and development, high maintenance cost, the high skill of operators, and scientific users.

Medium Technology
Medium-technology is one which can be developed and supported by a more modest society and can be utilized with low cost, with the most benefit. Medium-technology involves some characteristics such as less amount of capital is needed, no new science and knowledge is necessary since this kind of technology has been routinely used. The application of this technology is a half-dense capital type and is more labor-intensive. The components which support the industry usually can be attained from locals and the working skills needed are not too high.

Efficient Technology

This technology is mainly characterized by the small scaled capital, simple equipment, and more labor-intensive way of working. This is primarily done in developing countries as it can help the rural economy, decrease urbanization, and create a technological tradition from the simplest level.
The advanced science and technology especially in information and transportation technology achieved in the second half of 20th century, has allowed the information flow to be fast-paced. This fast-paced information flow has made communication and information spread fast timelessly going through national, economic, racial, and ideological borders, and other hampering factors.

Four Powerful Strategies to Improve National Human Resources and Science and Technology

According to Djusman, in order to achieve improvement of human resources and science technology in a national scale, some strategies should be employed. At least there are four powerful strategies to achieve this goal.
First, industry-society partnership. Industries and society should be partnering with each other to achieve significant improvement on national human resources and sci-technology.
Second, empowerment of research capacity which cover facilities of research and development, management pattern, functionalization of research and development organization, completeness, and the up-to-date national data about research and development performance, partnership and the development of technology.
Third, the increase of number of IPR (intellectual property right) in science of technology so that new scientific inventions are protected by the Law.

Last, widespread of research result and technology marketing that are proactively produced. When a country has an intention or goal of progress, and to continue to survive in global competition, this country should master information technology.

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